Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Treating Insomnia Naturally

Lack of proper sleep can have serious health implications, including greater susceptibility to infection, poor work performance, and even traffic accidents. This article focuses on treating insomnia without drugs.

Sleep is an important part of life, and those who do not get an adequate amount of sleep suffer from a variety of physical and emotional problems, such as excessive daytime tiredness, irritability and headaches. There are many prescription medications available to treat insomnia, but those who prefer a natural approach to a good night"s sleep have a number of treatments to choose from as well.

The Importance Of Diet In Treating Insomnia
One of the most important elements in adjusting the diet to control insomnia is eliminating caffeine. Consumption of caffeine can have a huge effect on sleep, and it has been shown to cause both insomnia and restlessness. Everyone knows that drinks like coffee, tea and soft drinks have caffeine, but did you know that chocolate, and many over the counter cold medicines, have significant amounts of caffeine as well?

In addition, excess sugar should be avoided. That is because, although sugar provides a short lived burst of energy, it can also cause uneven levels of blood sugar, which in turn can disrupt normal sleep cycles.

more about Insomnia

Monday, October 29, 2007


Im Zuge der Unternehmensteuerreform 2008 in Deutschland wurde die Einführung einer Abgeltungsteuer ab 2009 gesetzlich beschlossen.

Nachrichten zur Aktie Siemens

Die LBB VISA Kreditkarte prepaid ist eine Kreditkartenneuheit: Sie ist auch bei negativem Schufaeintrag und ohne Bonitätsprüfung für jedermann frei erhältlich.

Kreditkarte für ALLE Keine Schufa, keine Bonitätsprüfung, keine versteckten Kosten! Nur 39,90 im Jahr

Tuesday, October 9, 2007

The City of Gaudi

We now begin a very special chapter in the history of Barcelona, that dedicated to the work of the architectural genius, Antoni Gaudi, and which we begin in the so called "manzana de la discordia", in Passeig de Gracia between Consell de Cent street and Arago street.
In this short space of Passeig de Gracia we find the different styles of the most important architects of Modernist art which completely predominated in Catalonia at the end of the last century and the beginnning of this present one.
Of this architectural "discordi" the first example is the house of Lleo Morera, number 35 by Domenech i Montaner, who gave free rein to his preference for ornamentation. Number 39 is a house in Luis XVI style, by Enric Sagnier, but treated with discretion in its modernistic style. Number 41 is Amatller house, by Puig i Cadafalch, an expert in restyling the elements of northern Gothic and Renaissance Catalan. The next house number 43, Batllo house, work of Gaudi where he expresses his personal interpretation of Modernism, with the cult of the curved line. It is worth noting that Gaudi used the form of human bones for the configuration of the masses, balconies and columns of this house. A little further on in the same Passeig de Gracia at the corner of Provenca street we find another priceless work of Gaudi. Mila house, better known as the "Pedrera" which was begun in 1905. It is said that when Gaudi was asked to justify the curvilinear volumnes of this construction he replied "They are explained by their connection with the forms of the mountains surrounding Barcelona, visible from the site of the house" On the other hand, it has also been said that in his conception of this mass of stone, Gaudi wished to portray the undulation of waves.
We must recognize that Gaudi, carried away with his intrepid inspiration, managed, with the "Pedrera", to suggest a superior destiny of transcendental aspiration rather than a house with flats and shops to rent.
Not far away, between Provenga, Mallorca, Sardenya and Marina streets we find the most imposing of Gaudi's works, the Temple de la Sagrada Familia. Work on the construction of this church was begun in 1882, by the architects Martorell and De Villar. It was not until 1891 that Gaudi took over the direction of this project, destined to be the great Cathedral of Barcelona. His death, he was knocked down by a tram on 7th June 1926, prevented him. Even though he could not finish the work, at least his task was continued. When he took over the work, he modified his predecesors' project. He finished the crypt changing its structure for one with a more ambitious and original architectural structuring. In 1893 the apse was finished, still with signs of Gothic influence. Immediately afterwards the construction of the completely original Nativity facade was begun. He planned it in 1891, but during the construction it was changed in accordance with his constant desire to modify his artistic conceptions. By 1925, one of the four spires which now crowns this facade had been added. The other three had only been begun when Gaudi died in 1926, they were finished later, exactly as he had planned them.

With the Sagrada Familia Gaudi made an authentic demonstration of his artistic conceptions, at the same time showing a masterly technique, with absolute confidence in his own ability to defy the problems of disequilibrium and disharmony. This is Gaudi's greatest work and its continuation may respect Gaudi's original project. The church will have five naves without butresses, with an apse aisle of hexagonal radial chapels, covered by ellipsoidal vaulting supported on sloping columns. All the plans of the building are complicated hyperboloids. There will be three enormous entrances: the Eastern one, dedicated to the Nativity, the Western one , dedicated to the Passior and Death of our Lord, and the Southern facade will be that of the Glory and Resurection, the biggest of all. Each entrance will have four spires, like the two already finished. A total of twelve spires will represent the twelve apostles. Four taller spires around the dome will symbolise the four evangelists. These four will surround an even higher one, 170 metres, representing the Saviour. It should be mentioned that at present the work of Gaudi, who is buried in the crypt of the Sagrada Familia, is being carried on by the Catalan artist Subirachs, who has finished the Western facade, breaking with Gaudi's style in a rather radical way, printing a new style on the facade of the Passion and Death, almost diametrically opposed to the Gaudinian conception, but standing out in the general framework of the Sagrada Familia and responding to the particular style of this Catalan artist, questioned, not so much for his modern artistic style as for its application in the church of Gaudi. His work is however, admired and seduces for its clean lines, the detailed cut of the figures, as well as the perfect harmony of the volumes without excessive pathos in the scene represented, which is, at this moment the normal entrance to the church.
We now go to the high part of the city, the Salut district, at the end of Travesera de Dalt, to visit the Parque Guell. It is the result of of donation made to the city by Comte Guell in 1900, with the express condition that Gaudi should take charge of urbanising the 15 hectares of land as and how he thought fit.
If the projected residential colony came to nothing, at least Barcelona could count with these gardens, unique in the world.
In 1912 Gaudi added the monumental bench in the "hipostila" hall, called the "Sala de las cien columnas" even though there are only 86 of them, it borders the upper terrace, intended to be the amphitheatre of a Greek theatre. It is something which, while starting off with painting, sculpture and architecture, cannot be contained within the normal limits of any of them Besides the constantly curved forms, of the bench bordering the upper square of the park, it is composed of fragments of Manises ceramic, in different colours and sizes, arranged in the form of an enormous collage. The great variety of colours, the unforseen placing and combination has provoked great admiration, not only from the visitors and admirers, but also among great art critics. Le Corbusier wrote "Gaudi is the man who has had most architectural creative force among all the men of his generation".
In the centre of Parc Guell is the Casa Museu Gaudi where the famous architect lived until 1926, the year he died.
This house contains several objects which belonged to the artist, such as, paintings, personal objects, mementos and furniture by the same Gaudi.
Other works no less representative of Gaudi's genius are scattered throughout the city. In chronological order we mention first, Vicens house, in Carolinas street, built between 1878 and 1880, when Gaudi was 26 years old.
The Colegio de Santa Teresa de Jesus, in Ganduxer street, built in 1889, is a demonstration of just how much can be done with red bricks and parabolic arches.
The Finca Guell in Pedralbes, where the artist introduced a Moorish influence.The wrought iron entrance gate is outstanding, representing an original dragon.
Calvet house, built between 1898 and 1899 in Caspe street, a personal and free interpretation of Baroque style and his ornamental preferences with wrought iron.
Final we must mention Figueras house in Bellesquard street, better known as "Bellesguard" another, personal interpretation of Gaudi, this time in Gothic style. Besides the solid cross, crowning a daringly slender spire, the interior is well worth study. Gaudi built it between 1900 and 1902 on the ruins of the summer residence used by King Marti.

Saturday, September 29, 2007

new Link Collection

More Interesting Links - new Link Collection:

CNN Business , New York Times Business , Find Easier , Lycos affiliate , Dada Search , Alice

travel check list

Your travel check list

Here's a list to help you remember essential items for a stress-free holiday.


    • Travel insurance and proof of health insurance.

    • Vaccines and updated international vaccination card.

    • Travel medicine chest: painkillers plus products for diarrhoea, insect bites, travel sickness, sunburn and infection.

    • First aid kit: plasters, bandages, tweezers and scissors.

    • Insect spray or other mosquito repellent.

    • Sunblock cream.

    • Your daily medicine.

    • Contraception.


  • Driving licence.

  • Money and travellers' cheques.

  • Passports. Check the expiry date and whether you have appropriate visas.

  • Copy of passport, driving licence, travellers' cheques and travel insurance to be carried separately from the originals.

  • Travel information and maps.
More info about holiday insurance.

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Directories and Article Submission

Free Directories , Free Article Submission

URL / PR 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 7 5 5 4 5 5 7 5 5 4 8 5 5 7 6 5 6 5 4 5 5 4 6 6 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 4 4 5 8 5 7 6 4 5 5 6 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 6 5 5 4 5 6 4 6 5 4 4 5 6 5 5 6 4 6 6 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 7 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 6 4 7 5 6 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 5 5 4 7 5 4 5 4 7 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Monday, September 3, 2007

Hurgada, should know that ...

Hurghada, known in Egypt as Ghardaga, used to be a nice fishing village. Now, with its crystal clear water, untouched reefs and a multitude of ship wrecks, it has become one of the best Egyptians tourist destinations.
Hurghada is also a expanding city, every year many hotels are opened and also the government is doing everything for making this growing city attractive for the tourist, like for example special zones for pedestrians.
With more than 20 Km of hotels along the beach, Hurghada satisfies the needs of every visitor, from scuba diving to windsurfing to desert safaris. You can choose from the finest 5 stars hotel or simple Guest houses and everything in between.
Today Hurghada is also known as a party town, particularly among Europeans. Locals and others will tell you that life is begins at night in Hurghada with many clubs.
If you visit downtown Hurghada you will find the real Egyptian life. The souvenir shops, local shops and Duty Free shopping malls in the Sekalla district will also tempt you.

Electrical current throughout Egypt is 220 volts. Plug adaptors and current converters can be bought here.

Arabic is the spok. common foreign languages spoken by Egyptians are English, French, German, Italian and some Russian.

The Egyptian pound is dividend in 100 piastres. For your guidance on rate exchange, please refer to any of the official stated rates of exchange at any bank or exchange office. Please note that Banks are close on Fridays and Saturdays.

"baksheesh" (tip) must be justified by some help or service rented. It's advisable to keep a good supply of small change. Even microbus drivers expect a "baksheesh"

Tuesday, August 14, 2007

The Oktoberfest

Munich, Germany - This year the Oktoberfest will open its gates on September the 22nd, but the construction of the world-famous beer tents begins ten weeks earlier.

Oktoberfest info.

The legendary Schwabing begins to the north of the Siegestor (Victory gate) (1843-1852) which forms the border between two centers of Munich which are completely different in character

Monday, June 4, 2007

Social Bookmarking

Social Bookmarking is becoming very popular among SEO experts. Its is considered to be best and fastest way of building links and get High PR & Ranking for your website. Given social bookmarkings sites have lot of registered members so drives huge traffic too.

Social Bookmarking Site:
More Social Bookmarking Site:
Content Pop , The Search Engine Press , Business Planet , Barks Bookmarks ,, Forumsofindia , Fat Pitch News , , Technorati ,

Thursday, May 24, 2007

How to register .tw domain name

Currently, application for .tw domain name registration could be made online to avoid the review of documents in hard copies. However, respective applicant shall still comply with TWNIC requirements.

Register your .tw,, now.

Free Extras with Every Domain.

If you are foreign firms or foreign individual
For application, please visit ( for reference and service. TWNIC rules and regulations apply to both domestic and overseas registration.

.TW, the official Taiwanese Internet address is NOW OPEN to the world. Individuals, businesses and organizations everywhere have an unprecedented opportunity to gain entry into one of the most dynamic commercial centers in the world.

By registering your .COM.TW, .ORG.TW and .IDV.TW domain name(s) you will:

* Expand your business into the newly accessible Taiwanese marketplace
* Introduce your business to a potential customer base that exceeds 23 million people
* Safeguard your brand name and corporate identity in Taiwan, which was recently appointed to the World Trade Organization (WTO)
* Secure a 'localized' presence in Taiwan, while expanding your international presence

Register your .tw,, now.

Free Extras with Every Domain.

Sunday, April 22, 2007

Eisbaer Knut - Knuts Kollegen verdienen sich Kost und Logis

Eisbär Knut

Deutsche Zoos erschließen sich mit Tierpatenschaften eine zusätzliche Einahmenquelle - Für Erdmänchen gibt es sogar Wartelisten

Eisbär Knut ist längst mehr als ein Zootier: Er ist zu einer lukrativen Einnahmenquelle geworden. Der Publikumsandrang spült Geld in die Zoo-Kassen un auch Unternehmen sichern sich ihre Popularität. So hat der Süßwarenhersteller Haribo 5000 Euro als Kindergeld für das weiße Wollknäuel überwiesen und vermarktet Knut als Schaumzuckerbär. Doch auch weniger bekannte Tiere verdienen sich längst ihr Futtergeld selber.

Knut - Deutschland hat ein neues Wunderkind: Knut der Eisbär

Ob Gorilla, Riesenschildkröte oder Elefant - immer mehr Tierfreunde übernehmen eine Patenschaft für ihren Zooliebling. Besonders gefragt sind im Nürnberger Tiergarten die Prärienhunde, im Gelsenkirchener und Kölner Zoo die Erdmännchen. In der Domstadt gibt es sogar eine Warteliste und man hofft sehnlichst auf den nächsten Wurf. Die Beliebtheit mag auch am Preis im Jahr gehören die pfiffigen Tierchen zu den preiswertesten Angeboten.

Mallen mit dem Rüssel

Billiger sind nur Meerschwenchen, Rennmäuse und Chinchillas. Nach oben sind hingegen keine Grenzen gesetzt. Im Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn muss der Elefentanfreund stolze 5000 Euro im Jahr für seine Patenschaft zahlen. Dafür erhält er aber nicht nur die übliche Urkunde, sondern auch ein rüsselgemaltes Bild von Elefantendame Mangala. In Nürnberg kosten Patenschaften für Dickhäuter, Eisbären und Delfine sogar 7500 Euro. Allerdings können sich Tierfreunde ihr "Amt" mit Gleichgesinnten teilen und so einen bescheideneren Beitrag leisten.

Die Preise variiren je nach Zoo und Tierart sehr stark. Bei Hagenbeck in Hamburg kann man sich die Patenschaft für einen asiatischen Elefanten schon für 3000 Euro pro Jahr sichern, Für einen Flamingo fallen in Nürnberg 50 Euro an, in Gelsekirchen 100 Euro un in Berlin 2500 Euro. Die Patenschaft für einen Schimpansen schlägt mit 1000 bis 3500 Euro zu Buche.

- Knut der Eisbaer -

In Nürnberg gibt es rund 500 Futterpaten. Das bringt dem Zoo pro Jahr zusätzliche Spenden von rund 55000 Euro ein. Besonderes Firmen lassen gerne ein paar Euro für ausgewählte Tiere springen, ab 2500 Euro weist ein Schild am Gehege ein Jahr lang auf den edlen Spender hin. Privatpersonen bekommen neben einer Spendenquittung eine Urkunde und einen Eintrag auf der Patentafel am Eingang. Ab 500 Euro winkt eine Jahreskarte (einschließlich Delfinarium) für die ganze Familie. "Patenschaften sind als Geschenk sehr beliebt" , sagt Monika Prell vom Nürnberger Tiergarten. Manche Ehefrau habe ihrem Gatten schon einen Hausesel als Patentier "geschenkt", erzählt sie und kann sich ein Schmunzeln nicht verkneifen.

Knut ist vergeben

Trotz Knut sucht auch Deutschlands ältester Tierpark, der Zoologische Garten in Berlin, noch eifrig nach Paten. Nur der kleine Eisbär selbst steht leider nicht mehr zur verfügung. "Knut ist schon an Sigmar Gabriel und das Bundesumweltministerium vergeben", sagt eine Zoo-Sprecherin. Aber einige seiner fünf Artgenossen sind noch zu haben. Die Zoolieblinge haben allerdings keinen Vorteil davon: "Kein Tier wird bevorzugt. Die Vierbeiner bekommen nicht einmal eine zusätzliche Portion Futer, nur weil sie einen Paten haben", betont Wittmers. Alles fließt in einen Spendentopf.

Die Nachfrage nach einem Eisbären sit seit Knut nicht gesteigen. In der Gunst der Besucher haben die erwachsenen Tiere gegen ihren kleinen Artgenossen mit den großen Knopfaugen wohl einen schweren Stand.

  • Knut der kleine Eisbär
  • Videos von Knut -
  • Fototagebuch - Knut ein Eisbärleben -

Friday, March 2, 2007

House on the Roof

Nice Pictures of Museum of Modern Art in Vienna,

House on the roofVienna museum of modern Art

House dropped on museum

A house has been 'dropped upside down' on the roof of the Viennese Museum of Modern Art.

The art project, entitled House-Attack by top local sculptor Erwin Wurm, is supposed to look as if the house has fallen out of the sky and landed on the famous museum in the centre of the Austrian capital.

It actually took two cranes to put the huge sculpture into place, which is complete with a red roof, window boxes and a TV antenna.

The artist said his work was a statement against over-development.

Wurm said: "There are hundreds of thousands of houses and they are spreading like a plague, like a cancer across our land."

Tuesday, February 27, 2007

Ferrari story - V6 Engines - Part Four

It is well-known to the enthusiasts that the V6 Ferrari engines belong to the various "families" which began with the 156 used in the 1957 F.2. However, a more thorough research, stimulated by information received from the late lamented Aurelio as early as 1960, has enabled us to bring to light a much earlier project regarding a family of V6 engines with an angle of 1200 dating back to the beginning of 1950.
Ferrari pictures Ferrari wallpapers 1024x768

Single cam engines

Then there was a change in events; in September 1958 the new family of V6 engines was set up. These engines had an angle of 60° between the rows which was as half of the 12-cylinder, except for the fact that the drive shaft did not have the connecting rods alongside the same crankpins, instead it had two cranks offset at 60° and the three pairs at 120° between them. The distribution was single shaft with coil ignition to a single spark plug per cylinder. It seems evident that the previous experimentation done with single shaft heads on engine blocks at 65° served in determining the opportuneness of realising this new series.

The first engine of this new series was the 153; it had the same dimensions and the 151 (bore and stroke of 72x64.5 mm). It is curious that this engine was officially denominated the 156 S which would seem to indicate a 1500 rather than a 1600. The 154 was a real 1500 obtained from the previous type by reducing the stroke to 61 mm while maintaining the bore unchanged at 72 mm. The unit cylinder capacity was 248.3 cc. for a total of 1490 cc.

In the sequence of project numbers the 155 was inserted; this corresponds to the F. 1 engine with the cylinder capacity increased to get closer to the regulation limit of 2500 cm3. It had an enclosed angle of 65° and the same bore as the 246 which was 85 mm with the stroke increased to 72 mm; consequently the unit cylinder capacity rose to 408.6 cc. for a total of 2451 cc. This engine was used for the 1958 Italian GP. Nevertheless, the version used for racing, denominated the 256, was to be given project number 155/59 with bore and stroke of 86 x 71 mm. An oversize bore of 86.4 mm was also tried, to get a unit capacity of 416.3 cc and total of 2498 cc. Maximum power recorded was of 287 HP at 8250 RPM. The sporting season of 1958 also withnessed the use of a 5 speeds gearbox in place of the 4 speeds one, and the trial of Dunlop disk brakes on Hawthorn's car.

These brakes had been mounted on Collins' personal 250 GT and the car was a Maranello: upon Hawthorn instructions they were taken off the GT car and adapter to the Monza racing car, which Hawthorn took to second place. The success in the World championship was thus assured with a single Hawthorn victory at the French G.P. and several good placings.

In 1959 and 1960 notwhitstanding many improvements to the chassis (lenghtening of the wheelbase, rear wheels independent suspensions, disk brakes) the Ferrari could not stop the march of Jack Brabham and his rear engined Cooper. In 1960 the first cars with a rear engine were to be seen, the 256 P that made its debut at Montecarlo on May 29th driven by Richie Ginther and the 156 F.2 (practically the same car with a 1500 cc engine).

In 1959 the single seater got also the number 256 that indicated the increased engine capacity. The car general layout had been modified to the effect that the driveshaft now passed to the right instead than to the left of the driver.

In the last race of the 1959 season at Sebring was also tested one of the engines of the new 60° family with a single overhead camshaft per cylinder bank: it was the type 169 with bore and stroke of 85 x 71 mm and the capacity of 2417 cc and 250 HP at 8000 RPM. To this engines they arrived by following the route from the type 153 (the first of the 60° family) then the 154 of 1500 cc followed in the fall of 1958 by the types 157 and 158, both with bore and stroke of 77 x 71 mm and therefore with the same capacity of 1984 cc but one in sporting version and the second GT (with fan).

At the beginning of 1959 a type 134 B with short stroke was also tried with the classic bore and stroke dimensions of the 250 V 12, that is 73x58.8, total capacity 1476 cc and naturally a single camshaft per cylinder bank, but rather strangely with a 65° enclosed angle. In the same family of the 60° vee, there also the type 165 a single cam of 73x62 mm with a unit capacity of 259.5 cc and total of 1557 cc, and the type 170 yet another version of F. 1 engine with 2417 cc capacity, single cam and designed to be rear mounted on the 1960 car. On this car was also tested the type 171, the 65° twin cam rear mounted.

The engine type 169 S (similar to the 169 but equipped with generation and starter motor for sports cars) marked the end of the fifties and the use of the vee 6 on front engined cars. Apart from the F. 1 and F.2 single seaters these engines went also to equip many sports versions. After the two already mentioned types, there was also a series based on a chassis and body shape similar to the 250 TR but with a shorter wheelbase: 2250 mm. The car type 196 S was practically similar to the 206 S and the different number served to indicate the single cam engine from the twin cam type. The driving seat was on the left but in 1960 this would be changed to the right.

At the Buenos Aires 1000 km race a car was equipped with the 2417 cc engine (169 S) and this car was later to be equipped with independent rear suspensions, like the single seater. Beginning from engine project 167 (which in fact was made after type 170) all the new designs would be for rear

engined cars only. The development of these cars was long and successful to the extent of giving birth of a completely new make, the Dino, the tiny «granturismo» cars, quick and nimble, which in their sales brochures were announced as "almost a Ferrari».To this period is dedicated a future chapter of Ferrari Story.

Ferrari story - V6 Engines - Part Three

It is well-known to the enthusiasts that the V6 Ferrari engines belong to the various "families" which began with the 156 used in the 1957 F.2. However, a more thorough research, stimulated by information received from the late lamented Aurelio as early as 1960, has enabled us to bring to light a much earlier project regarding a family of V6 engines with an angle of 1200 dating back to the beginning of 1950.
Ferrari pictures Ferrari wallpapers 1024x768

Front engine

The project for the frontally-mounted V6 «Dino» engine began in the spring of 1956, receiving the progressive number 134 which identified the design of the two rows of cylinders at 65°, with the left row a little forward than the right (looking at the engine from the driver's position). The construction of the engine, cylinder block, heads and crankcase were in light alloy, distribution with double overhead camshafts for each row of cylinders,twin spark plugs for each cylinder and carburetion with three Weber 38 DCN twin choke carburettors.
The distance between cylinder axes was 110 mm a dimension dictated also by the need of staggering both crankpins of each pair, and this also allowed to use big bores.
In effect to compensate the 65° angle between the two rows of cylinders the connecting rods of the two facing cylinders did not use the same crankpin of the crankshaft but two cranks offset at 55°. In this way, the equidistance of the engine impulses was obtained. The two magnetos were located at the front end of the intake camshafts and as the engine evolved the number was reduced to one «twin» magneto which was able to feed the twelve spark plugs. With a bore and stroke of 70x64.5 mm a unit cylinder capacity of 248.2 cc. and a total of 1489 cc. Was obtained. A maximum power rating of 180 HP at 9000 rpm was achieved. The engine was installed offset to the left so that the drive shaft could run alongside the driver seat. A rear mounted gearbox also contained the conical gear, the multi plate clutch, the 4 speeds and the ZF limited slip differential. Independent front suspensions with helical springs and De Dion rear axle. Drum brakes. The car made its debt on 28 April 1957 at the Circuito di Posilippo in Naples with Luigi Musso at the wheel finishing in third place behind Collins and Hawthorn, who were both driving the 8-cylinder F. 1 Lancia Ferraris. Meanwhile, the evolution of the engine was already under way with the 2-litre version fo late 1956 being given project number 138. The bore and stroke became 77 x 71 mm, the unit cylinder capacity was 330.6 cc., the total being 1984 cc. Bigger carburettors, the 42 DCN, were also used. Special versions were also constructed, like the 134 S which was in fact the 134 modified as a sports car with dynamo and coil ignition; the 138 B with chrome-plated cylinder rods and the 138 S also modified as a sports car with dynamo and coil ignition.
In March '57 project 143, the version for Formula 1 later to be known as the 246, was set up. It had a bore and stroke of 85 x 71 mm, unit cylinder capacity of 402.9 cc. giving a total of 2417.3 cc. This engine had been tested at a maximum power rating of 290 HP at 8250 rpm and made its debut in a non-championship G.P. in Casablanca, Marocco on 27 October 1957. The new engine was mounted on the same chassis as the F.2 and driven by Collins, while a different version (No. 145) with bore and stroke of 81 x 71 mm., unit cylinder capacity of 365.8 cc. for a total of 2195 cc. giving a maximum power rating of 240 HP at 8300 rpm was driven by Hawthorn. The two cars did not finish the race for reasons not connected to the engine which, on the contrary, showed great promise.
The official debut took place in Buenos Aires in January '58 with Musso finishing second behind Moss, who was driving the little rear-engined Cooper; it was the beginning of the evolution towards the «all in the back». On of the immediately visible differences between the single-seater F.2 and F. 1 cars was in the shape of the exhaust pipe, running low in the former case and bent upwards in the latter. Further differences were to be seen in the location of the fuel tanks which were initially contained in the sides of the body, later changed to just one in the side with the other being placed in the back. The brakes were still the drum type and during the course of the season a front brake with helical fins was experimented with before moving on to discs in 1959. 1958 was a year of intense activity regarding the development of the V6; a new version (No. 146) had already been realised at the end of the previous year with a bore and stroke of 85x87 mm, unit cylinder capacity of 493.7 cc. for a total of 2962 cc. giving a maximum power rating of 300 HP at 7800 rpm. The cylinder block was newly-designed and the heads were similar to the 143, with twin cam shaft and double ignition.
This engine was in fact one of the rarest long-stroke engines ever to be produced by Ferrari and three new engines were immediately derived from it; the 147 with bore and stroke of 80x82 mm, unit cylinder capacity of 412.2 cc. for a total of 2473 cc.; the 149 with a bore and stroke of 87x90 mm, unit cylinder capacity of 535 cc. for a total of 3210 cc. and the 150 with a bore and stroke of 87x87 mm («square» engine), unit cylinder capacity of 517.2 cc. for a total of 3103 cc).
The 149, which produced 330 HP at 7500 rpm was only used once in a race between European and American cars, known as the Monza Indianapolis, on 28 June 1958. It was driven by Phil Hill but did not finish the race. The 150 was never used.
Before the Monza race the 2-litre 138 S engine had been tried out in a sports car called the 206 S driven by Collins in the Sussex Trophy at Goodwood on 7 April 1958. This engine had a power rating of 207 HP at 8200 rpm. It finished in second place behind Moss in the Aston Martin; on 3 May in the Daily Express sports car race at Silverstone Hawthorn gave the 3-litre engine its debut in the 296 S sports car, finishing third.
Still in 1958, two new types of engine were studied; with the relatively recent project numbers of 151 and 152, and having the same engine block with a V of 65° deriving from the original 134, it had, however single camshaft heads and single ignition. It was in fact an adapted design of the contemporary 128 LM V12, better known as the Testarossa.
In the case in point, the 151 had a bore and stroke of 72x64.5 mm, unit cylinder capacity of 262.6 cc. for a total of 1576 cc. giving a power rating of 165 HP at 8000 rpm. The 152 derived indirectly from the 134 and more directly from the 143. It had a bore and stroke of 84x72 mm (the 143 was 85 x 71!), unit cylinder capacity of 399 cc. for a total of 2394 cc.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Austria Tour - Welcome to Austria

Austria is a landlocked country in Europe and is surrounded by seven nations. The wall of mountains which runs across the centre of the country dominates the scenery. In the warm summers tourists come to walk in the forests and mountains and in the cold winters skiers come to the mountains which now boast over 70 ski resorts.

Austria Tour

Pictures of Firenze, Italy

Monday, February 19, 2007

Digital zoom versus optical zoom

The digital camera is but a technological advancement of the conventional analog camera. And thus every component of the analog camera must have been upgraded or changed to bring in some improvisations. This discussion is an effort to unravel alteration and make one comparison between what was and what is! This discussion is thereby focused upon a very critical component of a camera (analog as well as digital), the zoom!

Before making a comparison it is important to discuss the significance of the subject matter, in this case the zoom. Well a zoom lens has more than a few portable glass components inside it. By adjusting these components, the focal length of the lens can be altered. Modifying the focal length alters the view distance as well as reduces the field of view, thereby making the projected image to appear larger.

It must me noted that both the optical zoom and the digital zoom are components that are used to magnify an image, but they work in fundamentally different principles and acquiesces drastically different results. In general, optical zooms always produce a far finer and advanced image than digital zoom.

Looking at the functions of these zooms, in digital cameras that offer optical zooms function the same way similar to a zoom lens of a conventional analog camera. A conventional lens works by accumulating light rays that are projected over a portion of a film, and in this case of a digital camera optical sensor. The distance of the lens from the focus point where all of the light rays converge is known as the focal length of the lens. Unlike the optical zoom, the digital zoom works by ranging the pixels in the ultimate image after the image has been captured. The fact remains that the same number of pixels are collected when the photograph is magnified. The only thing that alters is the light rays that are projected over the optical sensors to figure out those pixels.

It is a common intuition that optical lenses are far better than the digital zooms. The reason is that the digital camera zooms are more prone towards computer applications in them rather than mostly human interactions and expertise. Yet, it also remains a fact that beginner photographers find it more useful to handle a digital zoom and also its computer friendly nature. There the computer does the intricate tasks of finding some levelheaded approximation of colors that pixel might take up as it had captured the images or photographs. Many algorithms are existent in this area, but perhaps the most abundantly used algorithm involves looking at the pixels that are quite nearly like neighbors and come up with a kind of an average. Anyways the process remains too complicated and its end result is what the digital zoom users are interested in.

Thus the ultimate truth remains that it is useless to compare digital zooms with optical zooms. Perhaps it is more logical to compare optical zoom with optical zoom and digital zoom with digital zoom. Both these two types of zooms, the optical as well as the digital, have some good and bad qualities. Both of them have some extra features and preferences over the other. And thus it is not wise to compare them, even though a comparison may exist. The efforts would then perhaps look like comparing oranges with apples!

Cisco CCNA Certification

Five Tips To Use DURING Your Exam Day,

There are plenty of articles out there about how to prepare for the CCNA exam. However, there are also things you can do to increase your chances of success on exam day during the most important part of the entire process -- the time that you're actually taking the test.

I've taken many a certification exam over the years, and helped many others prep for theirs. Here are the five things you must do on exam day to maximize your efforts.

1. Show up on time. Yeah, I know everyone says that. The testing center wants you there 30 minutes early. So why do so many candidates show up late,
or in a rush? If you have a morning exam appointment, take the traffic into account. If it's a part of town you don't normally drive in during rush hour,
you might be surprised at how much traffic you have to go through. Plan ahead.

2. Use paper, not the pad. Some testing centers have gotten into the habit of handing exam candidates a board that allegedly wipes clean,
along with a marker that may or not be fine-pointed. You do NOT want to be writing out charts for binary math questions, or coming up with quick
network diagrams, with a dull magic marker. It's also my experience that these boards do not wipe clean well at all, but they smear quite badly.

Ask the testing center employee to give you paper and a pen instead. I haven't had one refuse me yet. Remember, you're the customer.

3. Use the headphones. Most candidates in the room with you understand that they should be quiet. Sadly, not all of them do. Smacking gum,
mumbling to themselves (loud enough for you to hear, though), and other little noises can really get on your nerves in what is already a pressure situation.
In one particular testing center I use, the door to the testing room has one setting: "Slam".

Luckily, that center also has a headset hanging at every testing station. Call ahead to see if yours does.
Some centers have them but don't leave them at the testing stations. Wearing headphones during the exam is a great way to
increase your powers of concentration. They allow you to block out all noise and annoyances, and do what you came to do -- pass the exam.

4. Prepare for the "WHAT??" question. No matter how well-prepared you are, there's going to be one question on any Cisco exam that just stuns you.
It might be off-topic, in your opinion; it may be a question that would take 20 of your remaining 25 questions to answer; it might be a question
that you don't even know how to begin answering. I have talked with CCNA candidates who got to such a question and were obviously so thrown off
that they didn't do well on any of the remaining questions, either.

There is only one thing to do in this situation: shrug it off. Compare yourself to a major-league pitcher. If he gives up a home run, he can't dwell on it;
he's got to face another batter. Cornerbacks in football face the same problem; if they give up a long TD pass, they can't spend the next 20 minutes
thinking about it. They have to shrug it off and be ready for the next play.

Don't worry about getting a perfect score on the exam. Your concern is passing. If you get a question that seems ridiculous,
unsolvable, or out of place, forget about it. It's done. Move on to the next question and nail it.

5. Finish with a flourish. Ten questions from the end of your exam, take a 15-to-30 second break. You can't walk around the testing room,
but you can stand and stretch. By this point in the exam, candidates tend to be a little mentally tired. Maybe you're still thinking about the "WHAT??" question.
Don't worry about the questions you've already answered -- they're done. Take a deep breath, remember why you're there -- to pass this exam -- and sit back down
and nail the last ten questions to the wall.

Before you know it, your passing score appears on the screen!

Now on to the CCNP ! Keep studying !

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933

About The Author:
Chris Bryant, CCIE(tm) #12933, has been active in the Cisco certification community for years. He worked his way up from the CCNA to the CCIE,
and knows what CCNA and CCNP candidates need to know to be effective on the job and in the exam room.

He is the owner of, where he write custom CCNA and CCNP Study Guides and Flash Card Books, and teaches CCNA and CCNP
courses to small groups of exam candidates, ensuring they each receive the individual attention they deserve. Classes are offered over the Internet
and in select cities. Chris has custom-written the Study Guide and Lab Workbook used in each course - no third-party training materials or simulators are used.

You're invited to visit our site and check out our CCNA and CCNP courses and study aids, and to sign up for our weekly newsletter written personally by Chris.
Chris is always glad to hear from Cisco certification candidates at

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Ferrari story - V6 Engines - Part Two

It is well-known to the enthusiasts that the V6 Ferrari engines belong to the various "families" which began with the 156 used in the 1957 F.2. However, a more thorough research, stimulated by information received from the late lamented Aurelio as early as 1960, has enabled us to bring to light a much earlier project regarding a family of V6 engines with an angle of 1200 dating back to the beginning of 1950.
Ferrari pictures Ferrari wallpapers 1024x768


It is possible to outline a chronology of the various V6 engines by the dates of the fundamental designs (for example, those dealing with the crankcase and the drive shaft) and in this way we discover an amazing number of different engines, more than ninety in the three configurations used: the first at 65°, the second at 60° (derived as half of a V12) and the third at 120°. Since 1987 there has been a fourth variation destined for the Formula 1 of the period; the turbo engine came into being for the 1981 season with a light alloy cylinder block and an angle of 120° which was to be modified in 1987 with a cast iron cylinder block and an angle of 90°. There is a total of another ten variations. This leads us to subdivide the treatment of the subject into four chapters corresponding to the same periods. These are: front-engined sports cars and single-seaters from 1957 to 1960; rear-engined sports cars and single seaters from 1960 to 1970; Dino GT cars; Formula 1 turbo racing cars in the eighties.

Not all the types are known since in many cases they had experimental engines with different heads, different distribution systems, tested and then shelved; the strength of Ferrari also lay in this enormous mass of information gathered from experimentation. For a more coherent system it is therefore necessary to resort to two different numeration systems. These are the «public» series in which the first two digits represent the cylinder capacity divided by 100 and the third digit, which is always 6, for the number of cylinders. However it is also important to bear in mind the series of the internal project number, which are in progressive sequence with the various models without taking the number of cylinders into account. Except for some small variations, these numbers indicate the chronology of the Ferrari projects.

Another interesting element is the fact that with the V6 we see the transition from the old type of chassis composed of two big tubes to the trellis structure and later to the aluminum sheet-plated trellis structure which forms the resistant «skin» of the body.

Ferrari story - V6 Engines - Part One

It is well-known to the enthusiasts that the V6 Ferrari engines belong to the various "families" which began with the 156 used in the 1957 F.2. However, a more thorough research, stimulated by information received from the late lamented Aurelio as early as 1960, has enabled us to bring to light a much earlier project regarding a family of V6 engines with an angle of 1200 dating back to the beginning of 1950.
Ferrari pictures Ferrari wallpapers 1024x768

The Forerunners

The ability of the Ferrari engineers is confirmed by the fact that three engines built on the same basis but having different cylinder capacities were planned. In keeping with the custom of the period, the three engines were distinguished by the representative number of the unit cylinder capacity and denominated 183, 333 and 415 respectively. After the basic model had been planned and the other two variations outlined, no further work was done on this line of engines since Ferrari was already heavily involved firstly with the 12-cylinder and after with the 4-cylinder in-line engines. It was probably also the extraordinary success of the 4-cylinder 500 which shelved the research into a different project for the 1954 F.1. according to the recollections of some of the engineers of the period it was also due to the distraction caused by the bi cylindrical model which, although actually built, meet with very little success.
Whatever happened, the specifications of the three engines remain. The 183 had a bore and stroke of 60x40 mm, unit cylinder capacity of 182.65 cc., giving a total of 1095.9 cc; the 333 had a bore and stroke of 80x60 mm, a unit cylinder capacity of 331.75 cc., giving a total of 1990.51 cc.; the 415 had a bore and stroke of 85x73.55 mm, a unit cylinder capacity of 415.94 cc., giving a total of 2495.64 cc.
As can be seen the "family" included engines having the "classic" capacities of the time: 1100, 2000 and 2500 with probable ambitions towards GT and high performance production as well as the possibility of utilizing the biggest of the three for the future new
Formula 1.
The length of the connecting rods is also interesting; a 125 mm connecting " rod was used for the 183 while for the 333, which had a stroke of only 66 mm, the length increased to an amazing 142 mm, which was equal to those used in the big V12 engines, whose strokes ranged from 68 mm for the 275 to 74.5 mm for the 375 plus. A shorter connecting rod was used in the 415 (129 mm) despite the fact that the stroke had risen to 73.3 mm. Those who know how the Ferrari engineers work will already have guessed that other combinations of bores and strokes would have been possible, which could have given rise to new different models. So we arrive at that winter between 1955 and '56 when, as Ferrari himself describes in his books, speaking to his son Dino, who was already very ill, the subject of the V6 was once again brought up. With the go-ahead for the realization of the engine having been given and entrusted to Vittorio Jano (once again with Ferrari after working with Lancia) it was natural to name the project after the person who had advocated its choice. So the car with the V6 engine was called Dino.

Saturday, February 10, 2007

The 100 Oldest Currently Registered .COM Domains

Create Date Domain Name
03/15/1985 SYMBOLICS.COM
04/24/1985 BBN.COM
05/24/1985 THINK.COM
07/11/1985 MCC.COM
09/30/1985 DEC.COM
11/07/1985 NORTHROP.COM
01/09/1986 XEROX.COM
01/17/1986 SRI.COM
03/03/1986 HP.COM
03/05/1986 BELLCORE.COM
03/19/1986 IBM.COM
03/19/1986 SUN.COM
03/25/1986 INTEL.COM
03/25/1986 TI.COM
04/25/1986 ATT.COM
05/08/1986 GMR.COM
05/08/1986 TEK.COM
07/10/1986 FMC.COM
07/10/1986 UB.COM
08/05/1986 BELL-ATL.COM
08/05/1986 GE.COM
08/05/1986 GREBYN.COM
08/05/1986 ISC.COM
08/05/1986 NSC.COM
08/05/1986 STARGATE.COM
09/02/1986 BOEING.COM
09/18/1986 ITCORP.COM
09/29/1986 SIEMENS.COM
10/18/1986 PYRAMID.COM
10/27/1986 ALPHACDC.COM
10/27/1986 BDM.COM
10/27/1986 FLUKE.COM
10/27/1986 INMET.COM
10/27/1986 KESMAI.COM
10/27/1986 MENTOR.COM
10/27/1986 NEC.COM
10/27/1986 RAY.COM
10/27/1986 ROSEMOUNT.COM
10/27/1986 VORTEX.COM
11/05/1986 ALCOA.COM
11/05/1986 GTE.COM
11/17/1986 ADOBE.COM
11/17/1986 AMD.COM
11/17/1986 DAS.COM
11/17/1986 DATA-IO.COM
11/17/1986 OCTOPUS.COM
11/17/1986 PORTAL.COM
11/17/1986 TELTONE.COM
12/11/1986 3COM.COM
12/11/1986 AMDAHL.COM
12/11/1986 CCUR.COM
12/11/1986 CI.COM
12/11/1986 DG.COM
12/11/1986 PEREGRINE.COM
12/11/1986 QUAD.COM
12/11/1986 SQ.COM
12/11/1986 TANDY.COM
12/11/1986 TTI.COM
12/11/1986 UNISYS.COM
01/19/1987 CGI.COM
01/19/1987 CTS.COM
01/19/1987 SPDCC.COM
02/19/1987 APPLE.COM
03/04/1987 NMA.COM
03/04/1987 PRIME.COM
04/04/1987 PHILIPS.COM
04/23/1987 DATACUBE.COM
04/23/1987 KAI.COM
04/23/1987 TIC.COM
04/23/1987 VINE.COM
04/30/1987 NCR.COM
05/14/1987 CISCO.COM
05/14/1987 RDL.COM
05/20/1987 SLB.COM
05/27/1987 PARCPLACE.COM
05/27/1987 UTC.COM
06/26/1987 IDE.COM
07/09/1987 TRW.COM
07/13/1987 UNIPRESS.COM
07/27/1987 DUPONT.COM
07/27/1987 LOCKHEED.COM
07/28/1987 ROSETTA.COM
08/18/1987 TOAD.COM
08/31/1987 QUICK.COM
09/03/1987 ALLIED.COM
09/03/1987 DSC.COM
09/03/1987 SCO.COM
09/22/1987 GENE.COM
09/22/1987 KCCS.COM
09/22/1987 SPECTRA.COM
09/22/1987 WLK.COM
09/30/1987 MENTAT.COM
10/14/1987 WYSE.COM
11/02/1987 CFG.COM
11/09/1987 MARBLE.COM
11/16/1987 CAYMAN.COM
11/16/1987 ENTITY.COM
11/24/1987 KSR.COM
11/30/1987 NYNEXST.COM

Ionbee Hotel Reviews